|Pain can be relieved.
Understanding the causes of pain.
Pain assessment and use of pain-rating scales to communicate pain.
Talking to doctors and nurses about pain.
Using a preventive approach to pain control.
|Overview of drug management of pain.
Overcoming fears of addiction and drug tolerance.
Understanding drug tolerance.
Understanding respiratory depression.
Controlling common side effects of drugs (e.g., nausea and constipation).
|mportance of nonpharmacologic interventions.
Use of nonpharmacologic modalities as adjuncts to analgesics.
Review of previous experience with nonpharmacologic modalities.
Peer support groups and pastoral counseling.
Demonstration of heat, cold, massage, relaxation, imagery, and distraction.
Source: Ferrell, Rhiner, and Ferrell, 1993.
Psychotherapy and Structured Support
Peer Support Groups
Sources of information for patients and their families
How to find local support groups