When a child is in pain, the presence of a parent is usually helpful. Other methods of psychological support include holding someone's hand, a stuffed toy, or favorite blanket; asking questions;- using distraction; sleeping and resting; relaxing or using imagery; changing positions; and engaging in humor; these seemingly simple interventions can have powerful effects. Facilitating the child's usual strategies for decreasing pain is important. Although not well researched in child populations, measures such as physical therapy, TENS (Eland, 1989), splinting a painful extremity, positioning, the application of heat or ice, and massage may help relieve pain (see Chapter 4).
Relaxation and Imagery
Distraction and Reframing
Psychotherapy and Structured Support
Peer Support Groups