There are commercially available suppositories of morphine, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone. Medications can also be placed in a colostomy or similar stomp, provided that the flow of effluent is slow enough to allow the drug to be absorbed via the mucosa (McCaffery, Martin, and Ferrell, 1992). When converting from the oral to the rectal route, start with the same amount as the oral dose and titrate as needed.
Intravenous or Subcutaneous
Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA)